History

History of the Division

By Robert L. Rowell, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

The early history centered around the National Colloid Symposium since the first Symposium was held in 1923 at the University of Wisconsin, three years before establishment of the Division in 1926. No meetings were held in 1933 and during the war years 1943-45. Two papers summarize the first forty years (1, 2). These papers were reprinted in Vol. I (3) of the five-volume series of books that chronicled the 50th National Colloid Symposium that heralded the 50th anniversary of the Division in 1976 and was the first Symposium to bear the new name: International Conference on Colloids and Surfaces. Volume I covered the lead areas: Forces at Interfaces, Catalysis, Aerosols, Solid Surfaces, Water at Interfaces, Rheology of Disperse Systems, Stability and Instability, Membranes, Surface Thermodynamics and Liquid Crystals. Volumes II – V contained contributed papers on similar topics as well as Emulsions, Surfactants, Adsorption, Wetting, Surface Tension, Hydrosols, Biocolloids, Polymers, Monolayers and general papers thus defining the field at the opening of the current update which focuses on the period 1976-2001. An earlier report in the ACS Centennial volume (4) summarizes the history from another point of view.     

We first highlight the officers who have chaired the Division in the 25-year period, Table 1. It is their leadership that has overseen, directed and fostered the growth and development of the Division to meet the needs of the growth and development of the discipline during the period. 

One person must not fall through the cracks of history. Gabor A. Somorjai who chaired the Division in 1975 and introduced the idea of continuing symposia which set the tone of programming at the two annual ACS meetings and has persisted to this day. The current list of Continuing Symposia in Table 2 reflects the many research thrusts of our discipline. Comparison of the topics in Table 2 with the topics of the 50th Anniversary Meeting listed above reveals the changes and development of the field. 

The scientific contributions of our Division and discipline are best summarized in the publications of those who have been honored with awards. The oldest such award is the ACS Award in Colloid or Surface Chemistry, which was established in 1952 and supported until 1993 by The Kendall Company. Sponsorship was assumed by Procter & Gamble Company effective with the 1994 presentation. Since this history has not been summarized before, a complete list of awardees is given in Table 3.  We are fortunate to have two publications (5, 6) giving some of the Award addresses. 

In 1991 a new ACS Award was established: the Arthur W. Adamson Award for Distinguished Service in the Advancement of Surface Chemistry sponsored by Occidental Petroleum Corporation. A nominee must have demonstrated extensive contributions to the advancement of surface chemistry.  Activities recognized by the award may include such fields as teaching, writing, research and administration. Award recipients are listed in Table 4. 

The Division has also recognized innovation and excellence in graduate research in colloid and surface chemistry. The oldest award, the Victor K. La Mer Award for an outstanding Ph.D. thesis accepted by a U.S. or Canadian university was first given in 1970. A complete list of awardees is given in Table 5. 

For a number of years, the Division administered a graduate fellowship in colloid and surface chemistry that was sponsored by Procter & Gamble Co. The fellowship award was made to the recipient’s academic department to be used entirely to support the direct costs of the recipient’s PhD research. A list of the awards is given in Table 6. 

In 1990 the Division established a new award with the support of the Henkel Corporation. The Henkel Corporation Research Fellowship in Colloid and Surface Chemistry consists of an award of $20,000 each year for 2 years, to be used entirely for the Fellow’s stipend, scientific travel and other direct research costs during the final 2 years of doctoral thesis research at an accredited university within the United States. Award winners are listed in Table 7. 

In 1985, a new ACS journal was born, Langmuir, the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids. The story of its birth (from a survey of some thousand academics, industrial and government scientists with the enthusiastic endorsement of the Executive Committee of the ACS Division of Colloid and Surface Chemistry and carried out by following Society procedures) is related in some detail in the initial issue (7). 

Each year at the Fall meeting of the Society, the Division selects two well-known scientists, each to present a lecture having some common theme.  The one lecture emphasizes the “dry” or solid-vacuum or solid-gas interface, and the other, the “wet” or liquid interface, including disperse systems (7).  The early papers in the series were published in Langmuir. A list of the Langmuir Lecturers is given in Table 8. 

The history of the Division is also generated in active symposia in several secretariats, which meet jointly with other Divisions. A list of the current secretariats is given in Table 9. 

Finally, some perspective should be given to the overall technical programming of the Division. Above we have mentioned the Continuing Symposia, listed in Table 2, that are held at the Annual Spring and Fall ACS Meetings. But what has happened to the Colloid Symposium (now known as the Colloid and Surface Science Symposium) which was historically a single-session meeting devoted to a single topic surrounding the research area of one distinguished overseas guest plenary lecturer? The 1972 Symposium, the 46th, held at the University of Massachusetts was the last single-session meeting. By the time of the 50th meeting, which was also the 50th anniversary of the Division, parallel sessions were well established. At the recent 74th Colloid and Surface Science Symposium held at Lehigh, there were 8 parallel symposia in addition to general papers and a poster session. Needless to say, the task of organizing such a large and complex event is a special contribution, which must be recognized by listing the institutions and chairs who have carried on the traditions. This important update is included in Table 10. 

The breadth and depth of colloid and surface chemistry are highlighted in the attached tables. The achievements and contributions are too numerous and varied to be listed here but can be appreciated by reading the works of those cited in the tables and the references given as an introduction to the wide world of colloid and surface chemistry at the close of the twentieth century. 

Tables

1976   W. H. Wade

1977   T. Fort, Jr.

1978   W. K. Hall

1979   J. P. Kratohvil

1980   J. T. Yates, Jr.

1981   J. A. Mann

1982   G. L. Haller

1983   A.I. Medalia

1984   R. R. Rye

1985   D.W. Goodman

1986   R.L. Rowell

1987   A.T. Bell

1988   R. Rajagopalen

1989   J. L. Gland

1990   B.J. Kinzig

1991   E. L. Kugler

1992   D.W. Osborne

1993   C. T. Campbell

1994   R. A. Mackay

1995   J. B. Benzinger

1996   A. Morfesis

1997   N. E. Turner

1998   J. Texter

1999   Barbara K. Warren

2000   Alice P. Gast

2001   Arthur T. Hubbard

2002   Darsh T. Wasan

2003   Andrew J. Gellman

2004   James A. Schwarz

2005   Maria Santore

2006   Eric W. Kaler

2007   Francisco Zaera

2008   Robert Tilton

2009   Deborah E. Leckband

2010   Wilfred T. Tysoe

2011   John Walz

2012   Vicki Grassian

2013   William Ducker

2014   Michael Trenary

2015   Robert J. Hamers

2016   Daniel Schwartz

2017   Howard Fairbrother

2018   Eric Borguet 

A. Molecular Processes at Solid Surfaces
B. Catalysis
C. Surfactants and Association Colloids
D. Surface Chemistry in Biological and Medical Applications
E. Colloidal Particles
F. Electrochemical Surface Science
G. Foams, Gels and Self-Assembled Films
H. Tribology: Friction, Wear and Lubrication
I. Colloid and Surface Chemistry of Advanced Materials
J. Interfacial Chemistry and the Environment
K. Colloids in Cosmetics, Pharmaceuticals and Foods
L. Polymer Interfaces
M. Interfaces in Nanotechnology
N. Computer Simulations in Surface and Colloid Chemistry
O. New Techniques in Surface and Colloid Chemistry
P. Protein Interfaces
Q. Nanoparticles and Porous Solids 

Recipients sponsored by the Kendall Company

1954 Harry N. Holmes 1974 W. Keith Hall
1955 John W. Williams 1975 Robert Gomer
1956 Victor K. La Mer 1976 Robert J. Good
1957 Peter J.W. Debye 1977 Michael Boudart
1958 Paul H. Emmett 1978 Harold A. Scheraga
1959 Floyd E. Bartell 1979 Arthur W. Adamson
1960 John D. Ferry 1980 Howard Reiss
1961 Stephen Brunauer 1981 Gabor A. Somorjai
1962 George Schatchard 1982 Gert Erlich
1963 William A. Zisman 1983 Janos H. Fendler
1964 Karol J. Mysels 1984 Brian E. Conway
1965 George W. Halsey, Jr. 1985 Stig E. Friberg
1966 Robert S. Hansen 1986 Eli Ruckenstein
1967 Stanley G. Mason 1987 John T. Yates, Jr.
1968 Albert C. Zettlemoyer 1988 Howard Brenner
1969 Terrell L. Hill 1989 Arthur T. Hubbard
1970 Jerome Vinograd 1990 J. Michael White
1971 Milton Kerker 1991 W. Henry Weinberg
1972 Egon Matijevic 1992 David C. Whitten
1973 Robert L. Burwell, Jr. 1993 D. Wayne Goodman

Sponsored by Occidental Petroleum Corporation

1993David M. Hercules1998Kenneth B. Eisenthal
1994Gabor A. Somorjai1999John T. Yates, Jr.
1995W. Henry Weinberg2000Alvin W. Czanderna
1996Robert Gomer2001John M. White
1997Robert W. Madix2002 

1970

Charles W. Querfeld

Department of Physics

Clarkson College of Technology

1971

Edward McCafferty

Department of Chemistry

Lehigh University

1972

Donald E. Brooks

Department of Biochemistry

University of Oregon

1973

W. Henry Weinberg

Department of Chemical Engineering

University of California Berkeley

1974

Stephen L. Brenner

Department of Chemistry

Indiana University

1975

Michele Flicker

Department of Chemistry

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

1976

Felix T. Hong

Department of Biophysics

Rockefeller University

1977

Hung Dah Shih

Department of Materials Science

SUNY, Stony Brook

1978

Frederick A Putnam

Department of Chemical Engineering

Carnegie-Mellon University

1979

Eduardo D. Glandt

Department of Chemical Engineering

University of Pennsylvania

1980

Wilson Ho

Department of Physics

University of Pennsylvania

1981

Michael Deeba

Department of Chemistry

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

1982

Mark A. Bartau

Department of Chemical Engineering

Stanford University

1983

David G. Weklie

Department of Materials Science

University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

1984

Jeffry Harwell

Department of Petroleum Engineering

University of Texas, Austin

1985

Syed Qutubbuddin

Department of Chemical Engineering

Carnegie-Mellon University

1986

Manoj K. Chaudhury

Department of Chemical Engineering

SUNY, Buffalo

1987

Peter S. Kirlin

Department of Chemical Engineering

University of Delaware

1988

James P. Ebel

Department of Chemical Engineering

Carnegie-Mellon University

1989

John M. Vohs

Department of Chemical Engineering

University of Delaware

1990

Andrea K. Myers-Beaghton

Department of Chemical Engineering

Princeton University

1991

Antonios G. Mikos

Department of Chemical Engineering

Purdue University

1992

Andrew D. Johnson

Department of Chemistry

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

1993

Robert D. Tilton

Department of Chemical Engineering

Stanford University

1994

Paul E. Laibinis

Department of Chemistry

Harvard University

1995

Vicki L. Colvin

Department of Chemistry

University of California Berkeley

1996

Frank M. Zimmerman

Department of Physics

Cornell University

1997

John Levins

Department of Chemical Engineering

University of Pennsylvania

1998

Darrell Velegol

Department of Chemical Engineering

Carnegie-Mellon University

1999

Younan Xia

Department of Chemistry

Harvard University

2000

Yunfeng Lu

Department of Chemical Engineering

University of New Mexico

2001

Garth J. Simpson

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry

University of Colorado

1980 Bruce E. Koel Department of Chemistry University of Texas, Austin
1981 Eric Stuve Department of Chemical Engineering Stanford University
1985 James P. Ebel Department of Chemical Engineering Carnegie-Mellon University
1986 David M. Hrubowchak Department of Chemistry Pennsylvania State University
1987 Brial Moore Department of Chemistry UCLA
1988 Philip K. Vinson Department of Chemical Engineering University of Minnesota
1989 Kurt W. Kolasinski Department of Chemistry Stanford University
1990 Mark W. Grinstaff Department of Chemistry University of Illinois
1991 Michael A Meyer Department of Chemical Engineering University of Pennsylvania
1992 Carl L. Weisbecker

1990

Maria Laso University of California Berkeley

1991

John Levins University of Pennsylvania

1992

Rick Maechling Stanford University

1993

Brian Herr Northwestern University

1994

Alan Esker University of Wisconsin

1995

Ali Firouzi University of California/Santa Barbara

1996

Christine Keating Penn State University

1997

James Chamberlain University of Arizona

1998

Michael Bevan Carnegie-Mellon University

1999

Juanita Wickham University of California Berkeley

1979

John Yates  University of Pittsburgh

Janos Fendler Clarkson University

1980

Michel Boudart Stanford University

Milton Kerker  Clarkson University

1981

Art Adamson University of Southern California

Robert Madix Stanford University

1982

Ernest Yeager Case Western Reserve University

W. Keith Hall  University of Pittsburgh

1983

Paul Becher Paul Becher Associates

Paul Weisz Mobil Research & Development, Princeton

1984

J.A. Mann Case Western University

Mark Cardillo  AT&T Bell Laboratories

1985

Egon Matijevic Clarkson University

R.L. Burwell, Jr. Northwestern University

1986

Gerhard Ertl  Firitz-Haber Inst. de MPG, Berlin

Benjamin Widom Cornell University

1987

D. Fennel Evans University of Minnesota

K. Klier  Lehigh University

1988

J. Lunsford Texas A&M University

Ron Ottewill University of Bristol

1989

George M. Whitesides Harvard University

Sylvia T. Ceyer Massachusetts Institute of Technology

1990

George L. Gaines, Jr. Rensselaer Polytech Institute

Gabor A. Somorjai University of California, Berkeley

1991

Stig. Friberg Clarkson University

D.Wayne Goodman Texas A&M University

1992

Alexis T. Bell  University of California, Berkeley

Dennis Chapman  University of London

1993

Jacob N. Israelachvili  University of California, Santa Barbara

J. Michael White University of Texas

1994

Eli Ruckenstein  SUNY, Buffalo

Benjamin Chu SUNY, Stony Brook

1995

Alice P. Gast Stanford University

Cynthia M. Friend Harvard University

1996

Gerhard J. Fleer Wageningen University

Graham J. Hutchings University of Wales

1997

Matthew V. Tirrell  University of Minnesota

William A. Goddard  California Institute of Technology

1998

Bjorn Lindman University of Lund

Srinivasan Manne University of Arizona

1999

Hyuk Yu  University of Wisconsin

Mark E. Davis  California Institute of Technology

2000

Marie-Paul Pileni  University Pierre et Marie Curie

Hermann Gaub Ludwig-Maximilians University  Munich

2001

Malgorzota Borowko Marie Curie Sklodowska University, Lublin
  James A. Schwarz Syracuse University

Macromolecular Secretariat

Catalysis and Surface Science Secretariat

Materials Secretariat

Biotechnology Secretariat 

1977

51

SUNY Buffalo (Grand Island)

Robert J. Good

1978

52

University of Tennessee/ORNL 

E. L. Fuller, Jr.,ORNL

1979

53

University of Missouri-Rolla

Stig E. Friberg

1980

54

Lehigh University 

Henry Leidheiser, Jr.

1981

55 

Case-Western Reserve University

J. Adin Mann, Jr.

1982

56

Virginia Tech 

James P.  Wightman

1983

57

University of Toronto 

A.  W. Neumann

1984

58

Carnegie-Mellon University

G. D. Parfitt

1985

59 

Clarkson University

E. Matijevic

1986

60

Georgia Tech 

M. J. Matteson

1987 

61

University of Michigan

Erdogan Gulari

1988 

62 

Penn State 

R. Nagarajan

1989

63 

University of Washington 

John C. Berg

1990

64

Lehigh University

Mohammed S. El-Aasser

1991

65

University of Oklahoma

John Scamehorn

1992

66

West Virginia University 

Duane H. Smith

 

 

 

Martin Ferer

1993 

67

University of Toronto

M. L. Hair

 

 

 

A. W. Neumann

1994

68 

Stanford University

Alice P. Gast

1995

69

University of Utah 

Joseph D. Andrade

 

 

 

Karin D. Caldwell

 

 

 

Terry A. Ring

1996

70 

Clarkson University

Stig E. Friberg

 1997 

71

University of Delaware 

Eric W. Kaler

 

 

 

Ralph D. Nelson, Jr.

1998

72

Penn State 

Ramanathan Nagarajan

 

 

 

W. A. Steele

 

 

 

R. Hogg

1999

73 

M.I.T.

Paul E. Labinis

 

 

 

T. Alan Hatton

2000

74

Lehigh University

Mohammed S. El-Aasser

 

 

 

Maria M. Santore

2001

75

Carnegie Mellon University

Robert D. Tilton

 

 

 

Stephen Garoff

2002

76

University of Michigan

Ramanathan Nagarajan

References

1. “Remarks of J. H. Mathews at the Opening of the Fortieth National Colloid Symposium” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 1966, 22, 409-411. 
2. “Early History of the National Colloid Symposium”, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 1966, 22, 412-418. 
3. “Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. I. Plenary and Invited Lectures”, M. Kerker, A. C. Zettlemoyer and R. L. Rowell, Eds. Academic Press, N.Y. (1977). 
4. “A Century of Chemistry” Produced for the ACS Centennial in 1976. 
5. “Twenty Years of Colloid and Surface Chemistry – – The Kendall award Addresses”, K. H. Mysels, C. M. Samour and J. H. Holister, Eds., American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C. (1973). 
6. “Eighteen Years of Colloid and Surface Chemistry – – The Kendall Award Addresses”, T. Fort and K. J. Mysels, Eds., American Chemical Society, Washington , D.C. (1991). 
7. “A Journal is Born” by A. Adamson and “Why Langmuir” by K. J. Mysels, Langmuir 1985, 1, 1-3.